Public-private partnerships for healthcare have recently attracted great interest as a tool to achieve improvements in efficiency, consumer choice, and accessibility to healthcare. This chapter covers both practical and theoretical implications of public-private partnerships. First, it starts with a theoretical explanation of the reasons why public and private institutions engage in partnerships. Next, the chapter provides an overview of a number of influential multinational public-private partnerships for HIV. The remainder of this chapter draws attention to the potential role that local public-private partnerships could play in the creation of a strengthened, sustainable health infrastructure in sub-Saharan Africa.