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Second-Line Antiretroviral Treatment Successfully Resuppresses Drug-Resistant HIV-1 After First-Line Failure: Prospective Cohort in Sub-Saharan Africa

Little is known about the effect of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) resistance mutations present at time of regimen switch on the response to second-line antiretroviral therapy in Africa.

In adults who switched to boosted protease inhibitor-based regimens after first-line failure, HIV-RNA and genotypic resistance testing was performed at switch and after 12 months. Factors associated with treatment failure were assessed using logistic regression. Of 243 participants, 53% were predicted to receive partially active second-line regimens due to drug resistance. The risk of treatment failure was, however, not increased in these participants. In this African cohort, boosted protease inhibitors successfully resuppressed drug-resistant HIV after first-line failure.

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